Frá skiptisögn til ósamhverfrar aukafallssagnar

Um 'líka' í fornu máli

  • Einar Freyr Sigurðsson Stofnun Árna Magnússonar í íslenskum fræðum
  • Heimir van der Feest Viðarsson Háskólinn í Gent
skiptisagnir, (ó)samhverfar sagnir, tilbrigði, fallmörkun, rökliðaformgerð

Útdráttur

In Modern Icelandic the verb líka ‘like’ occurs with a subject in the dative case and an object in the nominative case. It has been argued that this was also the case in Old Icelandic. In this paper we argue that in contrast to Modern Icelandic, the nominative argument of líka could also constitute the subject during the Old Icelandic period and the dative argument the object. More specifically, we maintain that the verb líka was an alternating (or symmetric) verb where the nominative and the dative argument could raise to the subject position, whereas in Modern Icelandic only the dative is able to raise to the subject position. In other words, we argue that a change in the argument structure of the verb has taken place such that líka has changed from being an alternating (symmetric) verb to an asymmetric oblique subject verb. The main argument that is used to substantiate this claim comes from control infinitives in Old Icelandic, taking on the form in (i):

(i) girntiz       meirr at                   líka       einum      guði       en     mönnum
desired.mid more to PRO.nom like.inf alone.dat god.dat than men.dat
‘(He) desired more to please God alone than men.’ (Æv 150.15)

Based on a generative analysis of syntactic structure, we present evidence that reveals that the dative argument functions syntactically as the object, in addition to discussing other potential evidence based on word order. When the nominative argument is the subject, the meaning of 'líka' is sometimes closer to that of English 'please' than 'like'. We also discuss how this might be accounted for.

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Útgáfudagur
2020-06-30
Tilvísun
Sigurðsson, E. F., & van der Feest Viðarsson, H. (2020). Frá skiptisögn til ósamhverfrar aukafallssagnar. Orð Og Tunga, 22(1), 39-68. https://doi.org/10.33112/ordogtunga.22.4
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